What is sour water at a refinery?

Sour water is produced in refinery process units, as water is used for steam stripping and quenching. Sour water is contaminated mostly with ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which must be removed before the water is recycled back into the process.

What is refinery sour water?

Background Information. Sour Water is the wastewater that is produced from atmospheric and vacuum crude columns at refineries. Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are typical components in sour water that need to be removed before the water can be reused elsewhere in the plant.

How is sour water treated?

The sour water can be treated by stripping with steam or flue gas, air oxidation to convert sulfides to thiosulfates, or vaporization and incineration. Sour water strippers are designed primarily for the removal of sulfides and can be expected to achieve 85-99% removal.

Is Sour water Toxic?

Acute toxicity Produced water should not cause any adverse effects. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas can cause nose, throat, and lung irritation, and systemic toxicity and rapid death due to respiratory paralysis.

What is stripped water?

Measuring Hydrogen Sulfide in Stripped Sour Water

In a refinery, sour water must be cleaned of its sulfide content before being recycled or released to the environment. This cleaning process is known as “stripping” because it flows gas (air or steam) through the sour water to strip H2S and NH3 out of the water.

Is sour water corrosive?

The sour water is considered as waste water containing sulfides and chlorides, among other components, this kind of water is very harmful to metallic equipments that are in contact with it, producing high corrosion rates leading to failures and material drainage and spilling [22].

What is Aru in refinery?

The sour gas is processed in an amine unit (ARU) to produce a sweet refinery fuel gas. A solution of amine and water is used to absorb the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2).

Where does sour water come from?

Sour water is produced in refinery process units, as water is used for steam stripping and quenching. Sour water is contaminated mostly with ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which must be removed before the water is recycled back into the process.

What is a stripping unit?

A Stripping Column is a chemical equipment used for physical separation, where one or more components are removed from a liquid stream by a vapor stream. In industrial applications, the liquid and vapor streams can have co-current or countercurrent flows. Stripping works on the basis of mass transfer.

What is phenolic water?

Phenolic sour water comes from FCC and Coker units of refinery. This water contains organic and inorganic impurities derived from HSS precursors, which is formed from hydrogen cyanide and other salts etc.

What is the flash point of h2s?

Hydrogen sulfide

Names
NFPA 704 (fire diamond) 4 4 0
Flash point −82.4 °C (−116.3 °F, 190.8 K)
Autoignition temperature 232 °C (450 °F, 505 K)
Explosive limits 4.3–46%

Is produced water hazardous?

Hazard Identification

This gas can accumulate in tanks or vessels and become a fire hazard. Produced water may also contain Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), but the amount contained in the water itself should be well below any hazardous concentrations.

What is the density of sour water?

Relative Density: 1 to 1.2 (Water = 1) Solubilities: Not available.

What is the difference between stripping and distillation?

What is the difference between stripping and distillation? The primary difference is in the method used to separate the feed’s constituents. While distillation uses heat to boil the volatiles into vapor and then condense and remove them, stripping uses the principles of absorption.

What is the difference between absorption and stripping?

Absorption is used to separate gas mixtures, remove impurities, or recover valuable chemicals. The operation of removing the absorbed solute from the solvent is called stripping.

What is Stripper feed pump?

A stripping system is an auxiliary device on cargo oil pumps which enables the continuous discharging (unloading) of oil from tankers to take place without any manual intervention right up to the end of the discharging operation.

What is SWS refinery?

Sour water stripping is used to remove ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from sour water streams coming from many unit operations to condition it for discharge or reuse within the refinery.

What is TGTU?

The purpose of a tail gas treatment unit (TGTU) is to maximize the conversion of sulfur compounds to H2S. With an efficiently run TGTU, sulfur recovery efficiency can be increased up to 99.99%.

What is an ISOM unit?

Also known as: C5/C6 isom. The isomerization unit converts light naphtha into a higher-value gasoline blendstock by changing its molecular shape and raising its octane. The primary product of isomerization is called isomerate. The value from isomerization is its ability to upgrade light naphtha into gasoline.

Why is my water sour?

Many natural water sources can be acidic. An acidic pH changes many of the properties of your water, including its taste. Most consider acidic water (pH level lower than 7) to taste somewhat sour instead of neutral. If your water tastes bitter, this could be caused by having alkaline water (pH level more than 7).

How does steam stripping work?

Understanding Steam Stripping

The steam rises in the column and flows upward, countercurrent to the water. Often packing, trays or other materials are placed in the column to increase the surface contact between the steam and water, resulting in greater contaminant removal.

What is sour system?

Sour service describes a type of pipeline or storage vessel that is filled with substances that contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4). In order for the service to be considered a sour service, the hydrogen sulfide levels must be above a certain threshold.

What is the difference between scrubbing and stripping?

Stripping is the complete removal of any finish on the floor by means of a harsh stripping solution and aggressive stripping pad. Scrubbing is the removal of one coat of dirty/damaged finish and application of one or two coats of finish to rebuild rather than fully replace.

What is the difference between stripper and splitter?

I am currently working in Naphtha hydro treater, In our naphtha hydro treater stripper and Splitter both column is there, stripper is for removal of h2s and splitter is for removal light naphtha.

What is extraction column?

Extraction Columns are used for liquid-liquid extraction, which is an important separation technology in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

Where did phenols originate?

Phenol, the cresols (methylphenols), and other simple alkylated phenols can be obtained from the distillation of coal tar or crude petroleum.

Where is phenols found?

Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites found in cereals, coffee beans, fruits, olives, vegetables, and tea leaves. A study on the stability of structurally different phenolic compounds in buffers in the pH range 3–11 revealed that caffeic, chlorogenic, and gallic acid were not stable to high pH.

Are phenols good for you?

Phenolic acids, readily absorbed through intestinal tract walls, are beneficial to human health due to their potential antioxidants and avert the damage of cells resulted from free-radical oxidation reactions. On regular eating, phenolic acids also promote the anti-inflammation capacity of human beings.

Is H2S toxic?

Hydrogen sulfide (also known as H2S, sewer gas, swamp gas, stink damp, and sour damp) is a colorless gas known for its pungent “rotten egg” odor at low concentrations. It is extremely flammable and highly toxic.

Is H2S explosive when mixed with air?

Characteristics and health effects

Hydrogen sulfide is explosive between the lower explosive limit of 4.3 percent — air is too lean to burn — and the upper explosive limits of 46 percent — air is too rich to burn. However, when mixed with air, the combination can be explosive if an ignition source is present.

How does the body get rid of hydrogen sulfide?

Any absorbed hydrogen sulfide does not accumulate in the body as it is rapidly metabolised in the liver and excreted in the urine. Hydrogen sulfide usually breaks down in air in about 3 days and is dispersed by wind.

What is produced water in oil and gas?

Produced water is water that comes out of the well with the crude oil during crude oil production. Produced water contains soluble and non-soluble oil/organics, suspended solids, dissolved solids, and various chemicals used in the production process.

How do you clean produced water?

Treatment Alternatives. Considering the main contaminants present in produced water, treatment goals include deoiling, desalination, degassing, suspended solids removal, organic compounds removal, heavy metal and radionuclides removal, and disinfection.

Is brine water hazardous?

Sodium Chloride Brine presents no serious health effects in normal industrial usage. The solution may contain trace amounts of Sodium Hydroxide. Sodium Chloride is linked to heart and blood pressure problems through dietary intake. Ingestion of large amounts may cause vomiting and serious health effects.

What is stripping in chemical engineering?

Stripping is a physical separation process where one or more components are removed from a liquid stream by a vapor stream. In industrial applications the liquid and vapor streams can have co-current or countercurrent flows. Stripping is usually carried out in either a packed or trayed column.

What is sour gas and sweet gas?

The key difference between sweet and sour natural gas is that sweet natural gas contains trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide, whereas sour natural gas contains large amounts of hydrogen sulfide.

What is stabilizer in refinery?

A stabilizer is essentially a distillation column intended to remove what is normally a relatively small amount of “light ends” from a product. The product is then “stabilized”. Thus one might run the light petroleum fraction known as naphtha through a Naphtha Stabilizer.

What is splitter column?

A fractionating column or fractional column is an essential item used in the distillation of liquid mixtures to separate the mixture into its component parts, or fractions, based on the differences in volatilities.

What is naphtha stripper?

Within the contactor, part of the naphtha is vaporized. The remainder is withdrawn from the base, heated and sent to a stripping column where the naphtha is vaporized overhead as a superheated vapor and the soot-residual oil is removed from the bottom.

What is absorber column?

In standard packed absorption columns, a gas mixture travels up through a gas absorption tower and the solute is transferred to the liquid phase and thus gradually removed from the gas. The liquid accumulates solute on its way down through the column.

Why is operating line above equilibrium line?

The larger the distance between the operating line and equilibrium line, the larger the concentration difference for mass transfer, and thus, the easier the separation. Note: Operating line for gas absorption lies above the equilibrium line.

What is gas liquid absorption?

Gas-liquid absorption is a unit process to separate a specific gas from the gas mixture by using an appropriate solvent. Absorption is usually used to reduce impurities to enhance process efficiency, eliminating toxic gaseous from a gas mixture, etc.